Monday, 19 August 2013

Tracking Research: Protective effect of salicylic acid on Hg0 intoxication in mice

Tracking Research: Protective effect of salicylic acid on Hg0 intoxication in mice
C Ma, D Xie, L Huang, L Sun, Q Xu, G Li

Elemental mercury (Hg0) is a hazardous metal with significant human exposure through diverse sources. In this study, the role of salicylic acid (SA) was assessed against Hg0-induced injury in mice, with the aim of screening alternative clinical drugs to prevent or treat Hg0 poisoning. An exposure to Hg0 (1.0 mg/m3 in a glass box) for 2 h per day for successive 15 d significantly increased Hg accumulation in mouse brain and lung, inhibited the animal growth and altered the neurobehavior such as impairing the spatial learning and memory in the Barnes maze test. However, although oral SA (5.5 mg/kg body weight) during the Hg0 exposure did not reduce the Hg levels in these organs, it effectively counteracted the Hg0-induced growth inhibition, and improved the behavioral performance, accompanied by a series of ameliorations in the antioxidative defense and anti-inflammatory response. For instance, when compared with control, Hg0-inhaled animals had significant decreases in the activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase, and in the levels of reduced form of glutathione and the ratio to its oxidized form, concomitantly with a high accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde in the brain and lung. However, these values in Hg0 + SA-exposed animals were comparable with the basal levels in control. Likewise, interleukin-6 in the brain and lung of Hg0-exposed animals were dramatically elevated, whereas it was maintained to the basal level in Hg0 + SA-exposed animals. These data suggested that application of SA could protect mice against Hg0-induced injury.


Read More:  to Hg 0 (1.0 mg/m 3 in a glass box) for 2 h per day for successive 15 d significantly
increased Hg accumulation in mouse brain and lung, inhibited the animal growth and altered
the neurobehavior such as impairing the spatial learning and memory in the Barnes maze ...

Monday, 12 August 2013

Tracking Research: Hyperdynamic Microtubules, Cognitive Deficits, and Pathology Are Improved in Tau Transgenic Mice with Low Doses of the Microtubule-Stabilizing Agent BMS-241027Neuroscience Drug Discovery, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Wallingford, Connecticut 06492,

Hyperdynamic Microtubules, Cognitive Deficits, and Pathology Are Improved in Tau Transgenic Mice with Low Doses of the Microtubule-Stabilizing Agent BMS-241027

Donna M. Barten, Patrizia Fanara, Cathy Andorfer, Nina Hoque, P. Y. Anne Wong, Kristofor H. Husted2, Gregory W. Cadelina, Lynn B. DeCarr1, Ling Yang, Victoria Liu, Chancy Fessler, Joan Protassio, Timothy Riff, Holly Turner, Christopher G. Janus, Sethu Sankaranarayanan, Craig Polson, Jere E. Meredith, Gemma Gray, Amanda Hanna, Richard E. Olson, Soong-Hoon Kim, Gregory D. Vite, Francis Y. Lee, and Charles F. Albright

Abstract

Tau is a microtubule (MT)-stabilizing protein that is altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other tauopathies. It is hypothesized that the hyperphosphorylated, conformationally altered, and multimeric forms of tau lead to a disruption of MT stability; however, direct evidence is lacking in vivo. In this study, an in vivo stable isotope-mass spectrometric technique was used to measure the turnover, or dynamicity, of MTs in brains of living animals. We demonstrated an age-dependent increase in MT dynamics in two different tau transgenic mouse models, 3xTg and rTg4510. MT hyperdynamicity was dependent on tau expression, since a reduction of transgene expression with doxycycline reversed the MT changes. Treatment of rTg4510 mice with the epothilone, BMS-241027, also restored MT dynamics to baseline levels. In addition, MT stabilization with BMS-241027 had beneficial effects on Morris water maze deficits, tau pathology, and neurodegeneration. Interestingly, pathological and functional benefits of BMS-241027 were observed at doses that only partially reversed MT hyperdynamicity. Together, these data suggest that tau-mediated loss of MT stability may contribute to disease progression and that very low doses of BMS-241027 may be useful in the treatment of AD and other tauopathies.
 Tracking with HVS Image Barnes Maze

Monday, 5 August 2013

Tracking Research: Aging in the cerebellum and hippocampus and associated behaviors over the adult life span of CB6F1 mice

Tracking Research: Aging in the cerebellum and hippocampus and associated behaviors over the adult life span of CB6F1 mice

JA Kennard, KL Brown, DS Woodruff-Pak


Abstract
In the present study we examined the effects of normal aging in the hippocampus and cerebellum, as well as behaviors associated with these substrates. A total of 67 CB6F1 hybrid mice were tested at one of five ages (4, 8, 12, 18 or 25 months) on the context pre-exposure facilitation effect (CPFE) modification of fear conditioning, rotorod, Barnes maze, acoustic startle, Morris water maze (MWM) and 500 ms trace eyeblink classical conditioning (EBCC). Behavioral tasks were chosen to increase the ability to detect age-related changes in learning, as trace EBCC is considered a more difficult paradigm (compared to delay EBCC) and the CPFE has been found to be more sensitive to hippocampus insults than standard contextual fear conditioning. To assess the effects of age on the brain, hippocampus volume was calculated and unbiased stereology was used to estimate the number of Purkinje neurons in the cerebellar cortex. A significant, age-related loss of Purkinje neurons was found—beginning at 12 months of age—and hippocampus volume remained stable over the adult life span. Age-related impairment was found, beginning at 12–18 months in the rotorod, and mice with fewer Purkinje neurons showed greater impairment in this task. CB6F1 mice retained auditory acuity across the life span and mice aged 25 months showed significant age-related impairment in the EBCC task; however, deficits were not associated with the loss of Purkinje neurons. Although the CPFE task is considered more sensitive to hippocampus insult, no age-related impairment was found. Spatial memory retention was impaired in the Barnes maze at 25 months, but no significant deficits were seen in the MWM. These results support the finding of differential aging in the hippocampus and cerebellum.


Trials ended if the mouse did not fall after 60 seconds, at which point a latency score
of 60 was given. Barnes Maze. Apparatus. ... Barnes Maze. Primary latency and primary distance
were evaluated with 5 (Age) x 4 (Training Day) Mixed Model ANOVAs. ...

Saturday, 3 August 2013

Tracking Research: TP O'Leary, RE Brown - … Genetics of the Mouse: Volume 1

Tracking Research: TP O'Leary, RE Brown - … Genetics of the Mouse: Volume 1, …, 2013 - books.google.com


In this chapter, we review the use of six different mazes for the study of strain
differences in learning and memory in mice: the Barnes maze, the holeboard, the T-maze, the
Y-maze, the Lashley type III, and Hebb-Williams mazes . ...

Friday, 2 August 2013

Tracking Research: Young APOE4 targeted replacement mice exhibit poor spatial learning and memory, with reduced dendritic spine density in the medial entorhinal cortex

Tracking Research: Young APOE4 targeted replacement mice exhibit poor spatial learning and memory, with reduced dendritic spine density in the medial entorhinal cortex

GA Rodriguez, MP Burns, EJ Weeber… - Learning & …, 2013 - learnmem.cshlp.org

Young APOE4 TR mice exhibit impaired spatial learning and memory in
the Barnes maze. ... However, E2 and E4 performance in a single probe trial was affected.
Eighteen-month-old APOE4 TR mice exhibit spatial learning deficits in the Barnes maze. ...

Thursday, 1 August 2013

Tracking Research: Effects of Lactobacillus helveticus on murine behavior are dependent on diet and genotype and correlate with alterations in the gut microbiome

CL Ohland, L Kish, H Bell, A Thiesen, N Hotte
Animal weight and food eaten were monitored weekly. Intestinal immune function
was analysed for cytokine expression using the Meso Scale Discovery platform. Spatial memory
and anxiety-like behavior was assessed in a Barnes maze. ... 2.2. Barnes maze. ...